A report on Oliver Cromwell, an English leader and military leader, the leader of the Puritan Revolution, who was the protector of the Republic of England, Ireland and Scotland, is outlined in this article. You will also learn from this post about the role of Oliver Cromwell in the history of England.
Oliver Cromwell Short Biography
Oliver Cromwell was the leader of the English Revolution, commander and statesman of the XVI-XVII centuries. He led the Independent Movement, served as Lord Protector and Lord General of England, Scotland and Ireland.
Oliver Cromwell was born on April 25, 1599 in Huntingdon in a family of poor English noblemen. He received his primary education at a local parish school. In the years 1616 - 1617, Oliver attended Sydney Sussex College, which belonged to Cambridge University. At first, the future statesman entered the faculty of jurisdiction, but he soon dropped out and got married. Cromwell decided to take such a step regarding his studies after the death of his father: he had to help his sisters and mother with the housework, prepare cheese, brew beer, sell wool and bread.
In 1628, Oliver tried to build a political courier by electing to parliament from the Huntingdon area. But King Charles I soon dissolved parliament, and his career ended before he could begin. The next 11 years of his life, Cromwell led the life of a landowner. In 1640, luck smiled at him - he was elected to the Long and Short Parliaments as a deputy from Cambridge.
Political and historical portrait of Oliver Cromwell
With the beginning of the English Revolution in 1642, there were 2 opposing forces in the country - the parliament and Charles I. Cromwell fought with the rank of captain on behalf of the parliamentary army. In his detachment he recruited Yeomen peasants from East Anglia, who became his “ideological” subjects. Soon, the created regiment was called iron-sided for stamina and discipline. Oliver Cromwell’s life changed dramatically: he went through many fights, which played an important role in the history of England.
After the parliament won the First Civil War, the country embarked on the transition from an absolute monarchy to a constitutional one. Cromwell in 1645 began to create an army of a new model, like iron-faced soldiers. The commander abandoned the democratic radical views and the politics of Oliver Cromwell became more moderate.
In 1647, the leader showed dexterity and resourcefulness, being caught between 3 political forces: the army, the king and the parliamentary representatives of Presbyterianism. With the outbreak of the Second Civil War in 1648, Cromwell fought with the royalists, fighting in the north of England in Scotland. In October of this year, his troops entered Edinburgh, and Oliver managed to sign a peace victory agreement. Arriving with his army in London, he achieved the abolition of ardent supporters of the royalists in the House of Commons.
Cromwell in 1649 agreed to the royal execution and the destruction of the monarchy. The main goals of Oliver Cromwell were achieved - England was proclaimed a republic. The activist led the country along with his “silk” independents. He proved himself to be a tough ruler: he initiated a military bloody expedition in Ireland, suppressed all attempts at rebellion with incredible ruthlessness, and continued to smash the royalist troops.
Over time, the rule of Oliver Cromwell acquired conservative features. Once a defender of the people, he became hostile to citizens with democratic views. In 1650, becoming Lord - General of the Republic (Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces), the leader set about establishing a personal dictatorship.
In 1653, Oliver Cromwell adopted a document called The Instrument of Management and was the new Constitution. Thanks to this document, the commander received the status of "protector lord" in England, Scotland and Ireland. But domestic politics was difficult for him - social problems and an economic crisis were brewing. But foreign policy was given to him more successfully: Cromwell signed a trade agreement with Sweden and captured Jamaica, and also made peace with the Netherlands on favorable terms for England. Thus, Oliver Cromwell whose role in the history of England cannot be overestimated, although he could not completely abolish the monarchy, but laid the foundation for the successful prosperity of England in the future.
Oliver Cromwell died in 1658, leaving behind his son Richard as a successor.
Interesting facts about Oliver Cromwell:
- According to one legend, as a child, Cromwell was acquainted with the future king of England - Charles I. The boys often fought, and Oliver once broke his nose.
- He was married to Elizabeth Bursier, married to 8 children: daughters Francis, Elizabeth, Maria and Bridget, as well as sons Robert, Henry, Oliver and Richard.
- Oliver grew up surrounded by 6 sisters, as his 2 brothers died in infancy.
- Passion for revolutionary activity woke up in Cromwell only at the age of 41 years.
- In the fate of the figure, September 3 is a fateful date. On this day, many significant events took place: in Denbar he defeated the Scottish troops, over the army of Charles I at Worcester, that day his first parliament began its work and Cromwell also died on September 3.
We hope that from this message you learned who Oliver Cromwell is and what he has done for his country.