Interesting facts about the discovery of chemical elements

You will learn interesting facts about the discovery of chemical elements in this article.

Interesting facts about the discovery of chemical elements

Most of the chemical elements known in nature were discovered by scientists from Sweden, England, France and Germany.

The Swedish chemist K. Scheele can be considered the record holder among the "hunters" of chemical elements - he discovered and proved the existence of 6 chemical elements: fluorine, chlorine, manganese, molybdenum, barium, tungsten.

To the achievements in the findings of the chemical elements of this scientist, one can also add the seventh element - oxygen, but he officially shares the honor of discovering it with the English scientist J. Priestley.

The second place in the discovery of new elements belongs to V. Ramzai - an English or, more precisely, a Scottish scientist: they have discovered argon, helium, krypton, neon, xenon.

In 1985, a group of American and English researchers discovered carbon molecular compounds that closely resemble soccer ball shapes. They wanted to name the discovery in honor of him, but scientists did not agree on which term to use - football or soccer (the term for football in the USA). As a result, the connection was called fullerenes in honor of the architect Fuller, who invented a geodesic dome composed of tetrahedrons.

The French chemist, pharmacist and doctor Nicola Lemery (1645-1715) at one time observed something similar to a volcano when, mixing 2 g of iron filings and 2 g of powdered sulfur in an iron cup, touching it with a hot glass rod. After some time, black particles began to fly out of the prepared mixture, and it itself, having greatly increased in volume, warmed up so much that it began to glow. The isolation of gaseous fluorine from fluorine-containing substances turned out to be one of the most difficult experimental problems. Fluorine has exceptional reactivity; moreover, its interaction with other substances occurs with ignition and explosion.

Iodine was discovered in 1811 by the French chemist B. Courtois. There is such a version of the discovery of iodine. According to her, the favorite cat was the culprit of the discovery of Courtois: he lay on the chemist's shoulder when he worked in the laboratory. Wanting to have fun, the cat jumped onto the table and pushed the vessels that stood nearby on the floor. In one of them was an alcoholic solution of seaweed ash, and in the other - sulfuric acid. After mixing the liquids, a cloud of blue-violet vapor appeared; it was nothing more than iodine.

In 1898, Maria and Pierre Curie announced the discovery of two new radioactive elements - radium and polonium . But they failed to single out any of these elements to provide crucial evidence. Spouses began hard work: it was necessary to extract new elements from uranium ore. It took them 4 years. Then the fatal effect of radiation on the body was not yet known, and tons of radioactive ore had to be processed. In 1902, they managed to isolate a tenth of a gram of radium chloride from several tons of ore , and in 1903, Maria presented a doctoral dissertation at the Sorbonne on the topic “Study of Radioactive Substances”. In December 1903, Becquerel and the Curie couple received the Nobel Prize.

Bromine discovery

French chemist Antoine Jerome Balard made the discovery of bromine, as a laboratory assistant. The salt swamp brine contained sodium bromide. During the experiment, Balar acted on chlorine brine. As a result of the reaction, the solution turned yellow. After a while, Balar isolated a dark brown liquid and called it murid. Gay-Lussac later called the new substance bromine. And Balar in 1844 became a member of the Paris Academy of Sciences. Before the discovery of bromine, Balar was almost not known in scientific circles. After the discovery of bromine, Balard became head of the Department of Chemistry at French College. As the French chemist Charles Gerard said: “It is not Balar discovered by bromine, but bromine discovered Balar!”

Chlorine discovery

Interestingly, chlorine was discovered by a man who at that moment was just a pharmacist. This man's name was Karl Wilhelm Scheele. He had amazing intuition. The famous French organic chemist said that Scheele makes a discovery every time he touches something. Scheele's experience was very simple. He mixed black magnesia and a solution of muric acid in a special retort apparatus. A bubble without air was attached to the neck of the retort and warmed up. Soon a yellow-green gas with a pungent odor appeared in the bubble. So was discovered chlorine.
MnO2 + 4HCl = Cl2 + MnCl2 + 2H2O
For the discovery of chlorine, Scheele was awarded the title of member of the Stockholm Academy of Sciences, although before that he was not a scientist. Sheele was then only 32 years old. But chlorine got its name only in 1812. The author of this name was the French chemist Gay-Lussac.

Add a comment


Your e-mail will not be published. Required fields are marked *